Heli Tiirmaa-Klaar is Director of the Digital Society Institute, ESMT Berlin. From 2018 to 2021, she served as Ambassador for Cyber Diplomacy and Director General for the Cyber Diplomacy Department at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where she led the efforts to promote international law and cyber norms during Estonia’s tenure on the United Nations Security Council. From 2012 to 2018, she worked as a Head of Cyber Policy Coordination at the European External Action Service, where she coordinated EU external relations on cyber issues and co-led preparations of European Cyber Security Strategies. She set up EU strategic level cyber dialogues with the United States, India, Brazil, Japan, South Korea, and China as well as international organizations. She also kicked off EU global cyber capacity building programs and steered the development of the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox to bolster European response to malicious cyber activities. In 2011, she was assigned to the NATO International Staff to prepare the NATO Cyber Defence Policy. She has been working on cyber and tech policies since 2007 when she led the development of the first whole-of-government Estonian Cyber Security Strategy.